Wildlife in Asia
Animal geographically, all of Asia is considered east of the Ural and north of the Himalayas to the Palarctic region. The rest of the continent makes up the Oriental region, except the southern part of Arabia, which is considered the Ethiopian region, and the easternmost islands of Indonesia, which belong to the Australian region. The Palarctic region has largely the same fauna as Europe. There are no impenetrable barriers between the two continents.
Among species of animals peculiar to this part of Asia may be mentioned the prsjevalskij horse – the only surviving wild horse – and the kelp kelp. In the north, especially on Kamchatka, there is a lot of bears. Other characteristic animals are sable, moths, roe, polar fox, wolf and reindeer. In steppe areas and highlands, wild yaks, gazelles, sheep and goats live. The camel still plays a certain role for the population.
The Oriental region is located in the tropical and subtropical area. In the northernmost regions there are also some elements from the Palarctic region. The most characteristic are the monkeys. Most species are found in Southeast Asia. the gibbon and orangutan that belong to Borneo and Sumatra. Among the predators, the tiger is one of the most characteristic animals. It is located in Northeast India, Myanmar, Thailand and on the Malay Peninsula. It is also found in Siberia, Male Jury and Korea. The largest land animals are Indian elephant, Indian horn and water buffalo.
Bird life is exceptionally rich in the Oriental region. The chicken birds include jungle roosters, many colorful pheasants and peacocks. Other distinctive bird families are icebergs, hornbills, woodpeckers, pittas (dragonflies), humpbacks and drongos. The colorful foliage and deciduous birds are found only in Asia’s forests. Southwest Asia is often haunted by severe locusts. In southern Arabia, there are some animal species that are characteristic of the tropical part of Africa. antelopes, rock cuttings and cape baboon. In Sulawesi, Small Sundays and Maluku (Moluccas), a number of Australian species occur, including cousins (climbing molluscs), cashews and paradise birds.
|Country||Central government debt’s share of GDP (percent)||Assistance per person (US dollars)||Service sector’s share of GDP (percent)|
|Afghanistan||6.9 (2018)||107 (2017)||52.7 (2017)|
|Bahrain||94.7 (2018)||70 (2004)||55.3 (2018)|
|Bangladesh||34.0 (2018)||23 (2017)||53.0 (2018)|
|Bhutan||102.4 (2018)||147 (2017)||37.2 (2017)|
|Brunei||2.6 (2018)||14 (1995)||37.3 (2018)|
|Burma||38.2 (2018)||29 (2017)||43.2 (2018)|
|Philippines||38.9 (2018)||2 (2017)||60.0 (2018)|
|United Arab Emirates||19.1 (2018)||2 (1995)||52.5 (2018)|
|India||68.1 (2018)||2 (2017)||49.0 (2018)|
|Indonesia||30.1 (2018)||1 (2017)||43.4 (2018)|
|Iraq||49.3 (2018)||76 (2017)||41.2 (2018)|
|Iran||32.2 (2018)||2 (2017)||54.4 (2017)|
|Israel||60.8 (2018)||389 (1996)||69.4 (2017)|
|Japan||237.1 (2018)||–||69.1 (2017)|
|Yemen||64.8 (2018)||114 (2017)||13.5 (2018)|
|Jordan||94.4 (2018)||301 (2017)||61.8 (2018)|
|Cambodia||28.6 (2018)||53 (2017)||39.5 (2018)|
|Kazakhstan||21.0 (2018)||3 (2017)||54.5 (2018)|
|China||50.6 (2018)||– 1 (2017)||52.2 (2018)|
|Kyrgyzstan||56.0 (2018)||74 (2017)||49.8 (2018)|
|Kuwait||14.7 (2018)||3 (1995)||59.2 (2017)|
|Laos||57.2 (2018)||69 (2017)||41.6 (2018)|
|Lebanon||151.0 (2018)||215 (2017)||74.7 (2018)|
|Malaysia||55.6 (2018)||– 1 (2017)||52.0 (2018)|
|Maldives||68.0 (2018)||96 (2017)||67.4 (2017)|
|Mongolia||–||248 (2017)||40.0 (2018)|
|Nepal||30.2 (2018)||43 (2017)||50.3 (2018)|
|Oman||53.4 (2018)||– 7 (2010)||46.6 (2018)|
|Pakistan||71.7 (2018)||12 (2017)||53.5 (2018)|
|Qatar||48.6 (2018)||7 (1995)||42.6 (2018)|
|Saudi Arabia||19.0 (2018)||– 5 (2007)||48.2 (2018)|
|Singapore||113.6 (2018)||5 (1995)||69.4 (2018)|
|Sri Lanka||83.3 (2018)||14 (2017)||56.8 (2018)|
|South Korea||37.9 (2018)||– 1 (1999)||53.6 (2018)|
|Syria||30.0 (2010)||567 (2017)||–|
|Tajikistan||47.9 (2018)||34 (2017)||41.4 (2017)|
|Thailand||42.1 (2018)||4 (2017)||56.9 (2018)|
|Turkmenistan||29.1 (2018)||5 (2017)||30.9 (2017)|
|Uzbekistan||20.6 (2018)||20 (2017)||31.6 (2018)|
|Vietnam||55.6 (2018)||25 (2017)||41.2 (2018)|
|East Timor||6.1 (2018)||179 (2017)||44.1 (2017)|
The industry in Asia spans almost every degree of technical development. Part of it consists of a simple further processing of agricultural commodities or involves technically simple commodities that are manufactured almost in an artisanal way. Cigarette production in Bangladesh can be done, for example, by filling hand-rolled casings with spoonful of crumbled tobacco. Certain types of fabrication are really craftsmanship and highly labor intensive; for example, carpet weaving in Iran is performed on batches of hand-operated, hand-woven fabrics, often by children. At the same time, in Japan, there are some of the world’s most advanced industries, which, for example, manufacture a substantial part of all electronic components (for computers, among others), almost without human labor.
A large part of the industry’s production includes daily consumer goods (food, soap/detergents, textiles). These industries are found in almost every major urban area. In Asia, there is also a significant basic industry: Iron and steel for further processing are manufactured in many places, often based on local iron ore and coal deposits. In the basic industry, in many places fairly old-fashioned technology is used, for example in Russia, China and India, but South Korea and Japan have very modern blast furnaces and steel mills, which work almost exclusively with imported raw materials. In turn, they produce immensely economically and in large quantities; Japan’s steel production and consumption is among the world’s largest.
The countries with basic industries usually have a further processing metal industry such as shipyards, automobile factories and manufacturing of railway equipment and aircraft etc. Russia’s Asian part, China and India all have a broad spectrum industry; they supply large home markets with everything from medicine to building materials, including electronics and industrial equipment. For countries in Middle East, the most import industry is oil, according to Countryaah.com.
Developments in both India and most recently in China have been strong. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand are a group of countries that are working hard to develop industrial exports. Japan has had the greatest success with a commitment that began with ships and, for example, photo equipment (some of which were almost direct copies of known products). The trend has been towards ever more advanced products, efforts of larger capital equipment, highly trained personnel and research. Japan dominates the market in the photo, optics, electronics, radio, television, video recorders, computers, manufacturing of cars and motorcycles, etc., and through this effort has earned a very large surplus on its trade balance.
What determines the main features of Asia’s climatic conditions is the location and large surface area of the Eurasian land mass. The most distinctive feature of the climate is its pronounced continentalism, which among other things. implies strong cooling in winter, mainly of the northern parts, and strong heating in summer. This creates a mighty winter high pressure south of Lake Baikal and a summer low pressure a little further south, and these in turn give rise to the monsoons, which are the basis for the seasonal division throughout South and East Asia. The topographical features of the continent also affect the climate, in particular the large east-west mountain range complex in the interior, which constitutes an effective barrier to air mass movements in the north-south direction. The orographic rainfall is high on the south side (Cherrapunji in Assam has an annual rainfall of 12,000 mm), while vast areas north of the mountains lie in the rain shadow and have a strong arid feel. Due to the large extent in the north-south, most climate types are represented in Asia.
The southernmost parts, the East Indian island world and the two major peninsula Främre and Far India, have humid tropical climates. However, only the East Indies, the Malacca Peninsula and southern Ceylon have rainfall throughout the year and receive tropical rainforest climate. The average temperature is 25–27 °C; The rainfall is on average 2,500 mm/year but can reach more than 4,000 mm in places. Tropical hurricanes occur frequently (in the Philippines 23 times a year) and are often accompanied by devastating storm surges. Most of Främre and Away India have rainy season and dry season, which is related to the summer monsoon from the sea in the south and the winter monsoon from the inland, and the climate is therefore often called monsoon climate.. Along the coasts, the rainfall is so great that rainforest can grow. In the interior it is savanna.
Warm temperate humid climates cover the northern parts of Front and Far India as well as throughout eastern China, South Korea and southern Japan. The rainfall falls in the summer as a result of the monsoon’s humid air masses – except in a wide area in eastern China and southern Japan, which receive sufficient rainfall throughout the year. Another, diametrically located part of Asia also has a warm temperate climate but with winter precipitation, so-called Mediterranean climate. It is a belt from Turkey towards Afghanistan, where the mountain topography, however, modifies the temperature and precipitation conditions.
Cold-tempered humid climate occupies very large areas between 50 and 70 ° north latitude. Here, winters are characterized by lower temperatures than normal for latitude, especially in eastern Siberia, where the difference between the warmest and coldest months of the year amounts to 60 °C, and a minimum temperature of −69 °C has been measured (in Verchojansk). The rainfall falls in the western part throughout the year, in the east in the summer. Isolated mountain areas to the south have the same climate type, e.g. in inner Turkey, northern China and northern Japan.
Tundra climate – a polar climate where the summer temperature is lower than +10 °C and where trees do not grow – is found in a narrow zone along the Arctic Ocean. Even the highest mountain areas have a corresponding climate, e.g. Tibet, the Himalayas and Kunlun Shan. The remaining areas in Asia are markedly dry and have desert and steppe climate. Two large such areas are in the temperate zone. One includes the Gobi Desert and Takla Makan, and the other is around Lake Aral. Warm desert and steppe climates are found in southwestern Asia, from northwestern India to southern Iran as well as throughout the Arabian Peninsula, and are climatic regarding the continuation of North Africa’s large arid belt.