Mongolia. After an unusually hot and dry summer of 1999, Mongolia suffered the coldest and snowiest winter in 30 years. Much of the vegetation that feeds on the huge cattle herds, which form the backbone of Mongolia’s economy, was eaten up by rodents during the summer, and the little ones that remained were then covered by the snow. As a result, at least three million animals, one-tenth of the entire stock, died, leaving one-third of the country’s population without food.
Four years of civil rule, which only led to poorer living conditions for the majority of the population and characterized by corruption and political instability, were punished in the July parliamentary elections. The former Communist Mongolian Revolutionary Party (Mongol Ardyn Chuvisgalt Nam, MFRP) took back power by a large majority. The party received 72 of Parliament’s 76 seats.
New prime minister became Nambarijn Enchbajar, a charismatic 42-year-old who described British Prime Minister Tony Blair as his example. The former Communist Party promised to continue the privatization of state-owned enterprises, but with greater regard to the social consequences of the economic liberalization.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER: Offers three letter and two letter abbreviations for the country of Mongolia. Also covers country profile such as geography, society and economy.
Area: 1,564,116 km2 (world rank: 18)
Population density: 2 per km2 (as of 2017, world rank: 134)
Capital: Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator)
Official languages: Mongolian
Gross domestic product: 11.5 billion US $; Real growth: 5.9%
Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): US $ 3290
Currency: 1 Tögrög = 100 Möngö
Hausvogteiplatz 14, 10117 Berlin
Telephone 030 4748060,
Fax 030 47480616 www.berlin.embassy.mn
head of state: Khaltmaa Battulga, Prime Minister: Ukhnaa Khurelsukh, Exterior: Damdin Tsogtbaatar
National Day: 11.7.
21 provinces, 1 municipality: Ulaanbaatar
State and form of government
Constitution of 1992
Parliament (Great State Hural) with 76 members, election every 4 years
Direct election of the head of state every 4 years (one-time re-election)
Suffrage from 18 years.
last 2010 census: 2,647,545 residents
94% Mongols (88.5% Chalcha, 3.1% Dürbeten, 2.4% Bajats etc.), 4.8% Kazakhs; Minorities of Chinese and Russian
Cities (with population): (as of 2016) Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator) 1,311,251 residents, Erdenet 98,050, Darchan 82,247, Cojbalsan 43,106
Religions: 53% Buddhists, 3% Muslims (Kazakhs), 3% indigenous religions (shamanism), 2% Christians; 39% without religion (as of 2006)
Languages: Mongolian (Chalcha); Russian, languages of the minorities.
Workers by economic sector: Agriculture. 30%, industry 19%, business 51% (2017)
Unemployment (in% of the labor force)
Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 4.6%
Foreign trade: Import: 4.3 billion US $ (2017); Export: 6.2 billion US $ (2017)
According to COUNTRYAAH, the population of Mongolia in 2000 was 2,397,307, ranking number 138 in the world. The population growth rate was 0.850% yearly, and the population density was 1.5432 people per km2.
At the 1989 census the population of the People’s Republic was 2,043,400 residents, corresponding to an average density of 1.3 residents / km 2. The annual growth rate of the population remains very high, despite the fact that over the last decade it has shown a clear downward trend (it was 2.6% per year in the 1980-85 range and has progressively decreased to 2.3% on average. of the following five-year period). 45% of the population is under the age of 45. The dominant Mongolian ethnicity (khalkha) constitutes 77.5% of the population; 5.3% is made up of Kazakhs (Turks). The population density remains very low, due to the large territorial extension of the country.
The traditional economy based on pastoral nomadism is gradually transforming into an ” agricultural-industrial ” economy, within the framework of the five-year plan directives (the ninth covers the period 1991-95). The urban population (57% in 1992) is increasing, hand in hand with the transformation of the rural world and with the push for the sedentarization of nomads. In 1991 30% of the active population was still dedicated to agricultural-pastoral activities. In this context, livestock farming remains of primary importance (73% of the value of the overall agricultural-pastoral production). Arable land occupies just 1.2 million ha, less than 1% of the territory. Industrial activities are expanding, despite being conditioned by the lack of manpower, which requires the employment of military personnel and workers from the countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe. Two-thirds of the energy produced in the country is obtained from coal, mainly lignite (7 million tonnes in 1990), extracted from the fields of Ulan Bator and Darkhan. Considerable development has taken on a new northern industrial district, centered on the cities of Darkhan and Erdenet, which tends to enhance the mining potential of the country, hitherto little exploited. It produces copper and molybdenum concentrates, cement, machinery and wood products. Foreign trade takes place mainly with the Russian Republic, on which the Mongolian economy is heavily dependent. Since 1989, companies have been allowed to trade directly with foreign countries and to create joint ventures with foreign companies.