According to 3R Jewelry, Hamadan is located 400 km southwest of Tehran and is part of the so-called “Golden Triangle”, consisting of three ancient cities of Iran (Hamadan, Kermanshah, Khorramabad). The city is located at the foot of Mount Alvand at an altitude of 1850 m. This is one of the oldest cities not only in Iran, but throughout the world. It is believed that Hamadan was founded in the 3rd millennium BC. In the 7th century BC. it became the capital of the vast Median kingdom and was called Ecbatana. Later, the city was chosen as the capital of the first Persian Achaemenid Empire. Imam Khomeini Square in the center of Hamadan. From it, like the rays of the sun in a radial direction, 6 wide streets depart. 200 m to the west of the square are the tombs of the biblical characters Esther and Mordechai. According to legend, the Jew Mordechai saved the life of the Persian king Xerxes I. Later, Xerxes I married his niece, Esther, who became the queen of the capital of the biblical Elam, Susa. The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is one of the main Jewish pilgrimage sites in Iran.
Be sure to visit the archaeological site of the ancient city of Ecbatana. It occupies two city hills. The hill of Hakmatana includes the ruins of fortifications of the Median period, and the hill of Mosalla – the ruins of the Parthian citadel and the Parthian temple. Not far from here you can see the remains of the wall palace of Darius I, who ruled from 521-486 BC. e.
Hamadan is known as the birthplace of many prominent people. For several years, the great Persian scientist Avicenna lived and worked here. Avicenna died at Hamadan in 1307. In 1952, a mausoleum, a library containing about 8,000 books, and a small museum were built over his grave in 1952, introducing visitors to the works of the scientist. In the northern part of the city is the mausoleum of the poet Baba-Taher, who died in Hamadan in 1019. The mausoleum was built in 1970. Also of interest in the city is the Gonbad Alavian mausoleum of the 12th century, in which two members of the Alavi family, who ruled Hamadan, are buried.
In one of the city parks – Shir-Sangi – a stone sculpture of a lion has been preserved. Some scientists believe that the Parthians installed it, others that the lion was installed in honor of one of the commanders of Alexander the Great.
In addition, in Hamadan, it is worth visiting the vast oriental bazaar in the very center of the city and the Hekmatan Museum, which exhibits archaeological finds from the ancient city of Ecbatana.
5 km southwest of Hamadan, on the slope of Mount Alvand, the rocky bas-reliefs of Ganjname are interesting.. These are two huge panels carved into the rock with three columns of inscriptions carved in stone. The inscriptions date back to the era of the Persian kings Darius I (6th-5th century BC) and Xerxes I (5th century BC). They are made in three languages: ancient Persian, Babylonian and Elamite. Next to the bas-reliefs, you can see a picturesque waterfall 12 m high and a zoo. Rock inscriptions, a waterfall and a zoo are part of the Abbas-Abad recreational area.
Towering above Hamadan , Mount Alvand is suitable for hiking and mountaineering. Its height reaches 3570 m. Also from Hamadan you can go to Ali Sadr Cave. It is located 75 km northeast of Hamadan. According to the latest data, the length of the cave is 11,200 m. Most of the cave is flooded, so tourists move through it by boat. The water here is very clean, you can see everything that happens to a depth of 10 m. The main gallery of the cave has dimensions of 100×50 m and reaches a height of 40 m.
76 km southeast of Hamadan in the city of Kangavar are the ruins of the Parthian temple of Anahita, which is dedicated to the goddess of water. Presumably the temple was built in the period from the 1st century BC. to 3rd century AD To date, the temple has preserved the remains of massive columns that stand on a high stone platform.
The second city of the Golden Triangle is Kermanshah. It is located 150 km west of Hamadan. Under the rule of the Sassanids, Kermanshah was the capital of the empire. 7 km from Kermanshah, there is an interesting complex of Tage-Bostan reliefs carved into the rock. The complex consists of two rock grottoes and a rocky relief and belongs to the era of the Sassanid dynasty (3-7 centuries AD). Here are scenes from the coronation of the Sassanid emperors and hunting scenes. In the 19th century, images of the court were added to the reliefs, which were conducted by one of the shahs of the Qajar dynasty – Feth Ali Shah. Today, the reliefs of Tage-Bostan are located on the territory of the forest park of the same name. 30 km east of Kermanshah is one of the main historical sights of Iran – the Behistun inscription.
It is carved on the slope of Mount Behistun at a height of 150 m. The inscription dates back to the era of the Achaemenid Empire, it was made during the reign of Darius I (6-5 centuries BC). The inscription is a cuneiform text of 400 lines in three ancient languages: Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian. Its size is ten meters high and twenty-five meters wide. The inscription describes the process of accession to the throne of Darius I. Above it you can see a bas-relief depicting Darius I. The location of the inscription was not chosen by chance. The ancient Iranians considered Mount Behistun sacred, in addition, it was located on the way from Iran to Mesopotamia.
Also in the vicinity of Kermanshah is the Parau Plateau, on which the largest limestone cave in the world, Kuh-i-Parau, is located.. There are about 30 lakes in the cave.
The third city of the “Golden Triangle” is Khorramabad. It is located south of Hamadan. The main attraction of the city is Falakol-Aflak Castle – one of the most impressive castles in the country. It stands in the very center of Khorramabad on a high hill. The exact date of construction of the castle is not known. However, scientists believe that it was erected during the reign of the Sassanids (3-7 centuries AD). The base area of the castle is 5300 sq. m., and its height reaches 23 m. Initially, the castle had 12 towers, today only 8 of them remain. At the beginning of the 20th century, the castle was used as a prison for political prisoners, and in 1975 a museum was located here. The museum consists of two galleries – archaeological and anthropological, which tells about the history of the region.