Sudan. A long power struggle between military president
Omar al-Bashir and Islamist leader Hasan at-Turabi
culminated in May, when at-Turabi and his phalanx were
excluded from the ruling National Congress. Among the
excluded were the entire party secretariat and all 26
provincial chairpersons. In September, at-Turabi formed a
new party, the National People's Congress.
COUNTRYAAH, Former Prime Minister As-Sadiq al-Mahdi, who was deposed
at the 1989 coup and was imprisoned for a long time,
returned to his home country in November with the
government's approval. as-Sadiq al-Mahdi had made peace with
the government in 1999 and in March broke down the
cooperation with the armed resistance movement the National
Democratic Alliance, in which the South Sudanese guerrillas
are included. About ten other leaders of al-Sadiq's Umma
Party and hundreds of members of the dissolved party militia
also returned from exile.
The perennial civil war continued at a mostly low level.
Peace talks were held periodically, but remained locked in
disagreement over the place of religion in society. The
conflict runs between the dominant, Muslim northern part of
the country and the Christian or animist south.
In October, Sudan was Africa's candidate for a seat on
the UN Security Council, but was outsmarted after fierce
criticism from primarily the United States, but also from
human rights groups and Christian movements.
After a $ 3 billion investment dollars could inaugurate a
1,500 km long oil pipeline in June. This made it possible to
exploit oil sources that had so far made the war and the
country's political problems unavailable. By the end,
150,000 barrels of oil were being produced daily, and the
plan was to increase production to 250,000. But due to the
huge investments, Sudan will only start earning money on the
project after 2003.
Hunger and war continue to plague the country. 1-2,000
displaced people arrive daily at the centers where the
international relief organizations work.
In December 2000, al-Bashir was re-elected with 86.5% of
the vote. The election was boycotted by most of the
opposition. In February 2001, he appeared in military
uniform at the opening of a conference in Khartoum for Sahel
and Saharan state leaders.
In December 2001, the government announced that it had
released over 14,500 predominantly black slaves. It happened
after a 6 month campaign by the human rights organizations,
In January 2002, the SPLA entered into an alliance with
its rival, the Sudanese People's Defense Force, to make a
joint front against the central government.
In Kenya, the negotiation between the government and the
SPLA began, and in October 2002 a peace agreement was
concluded, ending 19 years of civil war that had cost 2
million lives. The United States had already previously
declared access to Africa's oil as a subject of "national
interest" and Foreign Minister Colin Powell had ifbm. the
negotiations in Kenya threatened to triple the US
contribution to the SPLA to 300 million. US $ and with
maintaining the blockade of Sudan if no peace agreement was
concluded by March 2003.
SPLA leader Colonel John Garang demanded the appointment
of Sudan's Vice-President instead of Alí Osaman Taha, and at
the same time demanded jurisdiction over Sudan's southern
provinces of Nuba, Abyei and the Blue Nile. They had come
under the northern control of the country in 1972. However,
these points were not resolved during the following years of
In April to December 2003, the government and SPLA agreed
in 2004 to rally their soldiers in a joint army of 39,000
soldiers, share profits from oil production, draft a new
constitution, grant administrative autonomy to the southern
part of the country and conduct a referendum in 2010 about
the independence of the southern part. In October 2003, the
Islamic leader, Hassan al-Turabi, was released. He had been
jailed for several years. At the same time, the ban on his
party, the Islamic National Front (NIF) was lifted. It was
estimated that 92% of the population lived below the poverty