In August 1991, opposition leaders Maxime Ferrari returned
from exile. He was leader of the Christian Democratic
Assembly Party for Democracy. His son, Jean-Francois,
founded the Seychelles Party and requested the speed of
parliamentary elections - with international oversight.
the opposition forced President René to accept a multi-party
system. The first step was taken in July 1992, when a
commission was chosen to draft a new constitution. The SPFF
government party received 13 of the 23 seats in the
commission. Ex-President Mancham's party PD got 8 seats.
The government continued its authoritarian practice,
which soon led PD to resign from the Constitutional
Commission and the first draft of a new constitution was
rejected. The process was only resumed in June 1993, after
PD re-entered the Commission. A new proposal was drafted
that could receive support from both parties, and it was
later voted by a referendum of 73.6% of the vote.
The new constitution made the country a multi-party
state, with a National Assembly of 33 members and
presidential elections every 5 years. According to the
president, the constitution could last for up to 3 periods.
René won the election in July 1993, and his party gained an
absolute majority in the National Assembly.
Tourism remained the country's main source of income. In
1993 and 94, the number of visiting tourists exceeded the
country's total population. Oil products and canned tuna
accounted for 80% of exports during the same period. Despite
a 22% unemployment rate, per capita income in 1994 was $
5,480. 99% of the population has access to running water and
everyone meets their basic food needs.
In 1995-96, economic growth was moderate. In 1996,
international aid totaled $ 13 million, which was used to
finance a number of environmental conservation and road
In 1997, only 1.1% of the state budget depended on
international aid, although the country still relies on
foreign technical assistance.
Although in 1998, Seychelles ranked highest among African
countries on the UNDP human development scale, the country
ranked only 56th worldwide.
At the South-South Summit in Havana in April 2000, Vice
President James Michell succeeded in gaining the Summit's
recognition of the special problems and vulnerabilities
facing small island states such as the Seychelles. By 2001,
an indicator should be provided for the vulnerability of
With the aim of showing investors that political
stability prevailed in the country, René printed elections
two years ahead of time. At the September 2001 elections, he
was re-elected for the third time since the introduction of
multi-party rule. He got 54.2% of the vote, while his
counterpart, Wavel Ramkalawan of the Seychelles National
Party got 44.9%. Ramkalawan declined to accept the election
result and declared that the election had been marked by
threats and offers of money to voters who would vote for
Global warming is one of the biggest problems Seychelles
is facing. Within flora and fauna are among others. parrots,
large turtles and coconut trees are already affected by the
rising temperatures and the corals around the islands are
already dead. The country's large biodiversity helps to make
it a favorite tourist destination, and tourism is therefore
also an important source of foreign currency. The government
has therefore made the protection of the environment one of
its most important goals. The population is raised entirely
from small to care for natural resources.
In January 2002, the Constitutional Court refused to
overturn the September election results, despite allegations
In April, the Consultative Tourism Council, which since
1999 had advised the government, was transformed. The
Minister of Tourism and Transport, Simone de Comarmond
assured that the government had committed to supporting the
development of tourism. Especially after the terrorist
attack on New York on September 11, it was necessary to step
up efforts to keep Seychelles' tourism industry competitive.
The Journalists Without Borders protest against the
government because of its campaign against the independent
newspaper Regar, which in articles accused Vice
President James Michel of being involved in corruption.