Italy. In April, Italy received his 58th government since
the Second World War following a government crisis in the
surge following the regional elections, where the right
stepped forward sharply while the left-wing coalition
government pushed back. The election campaign before the
regional elections was lifted to a major political level,
mainly by the rocky TV magnate, the right-wing opposition
leader and Italy's former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, who
poured money into the campaign, of all things to judge for a
political comeback in the parliamentary elections in 2001.
Berlusconi has previously convicted of tax fraud, corruption
and embezzlement, and only I's ineffective legal system has
prevented him from going to prison. In February, however, he
was acquitted of having forged documents in 1987 in
connection with the purchase of a film distribution company.
COUNTRYAAH, shortly after the defeat in the regional elections, Prime
Minister Massimo D'Alema filed his and the government's
resignation application. He was succeeded by Finance
Minister Giuliano Amato, and Italy avoided the new election
required by the right. The Left Coalition agreed late last
summer to appoint Rome's dynamic mayor Francesco Rutelli to
lead its upcoming election campaign. At the end of May, a
referendum was held on a new electoral law that would make
it difficult for small parties to enter Parliament. However,
the vote had to be declared invalid because so few Italians
went to the ballot boxes.
The Right's success in Italy and the fears of an upcoming
right-wing government there created concern in the EU.
Berlusconi could not form a right-wing government without
the support of Umberto Bossi's separatist party, Lega Nord.
Bossi has previously engaged in pleading to dissolve the
nation-state of Italy, breaking off the rich northern part from
the poor south and forming the independent country of Paldania. When he discovered that he was not getting enough
support, he embarked on xenophobia as the populist he is.
According to a new law at the beginning of the year, the
Italian fathers were granted the right to child leave.
According to the law, during the child's first eight years,
parents can share a parental leave of just under ten months.
Mussolini's foreign policy was concentrated on the
conquest of colonies. In 1936, Italy invaded Ethiopia, and a
year later, the East African Italian Empire was formed.
During the Spanish Civil War, closer ties were established
with Hitler Germany and the Rome-Berlin axis was formed. In
April 1939, Italian troops conquered Albania.
World War II crushed fascist rule. The war became a
military disaster for the fascists. When the Allies landed
in Sicily in the summer of 1943, Mussolini was excluded by
the fascist High Council. The king elected one of the
members of this assembly, Marshal Badoglio, as new head of
government. In September 1943, Italy was forced into
unconditional surrender and the Anglo-American forces took
control of southern Italy. Northern Italy remained under
German occupation until April 25, 1945.
This division of the country had major political
consequences. In both the north and the south, national
liberation committees (CLNs) existed in all the major
cities. The CLN was composed of representatives of all the
anti-fascist parties. In the north, the leftist party
movement led to a radical radicalization of the population.
In the liberated areas, the fascists were replaced with
democratically elected popular bodies. Businesses and land
were occupied. Many partisans hoped and believed that the
fight against Nazi fascism should lead to a socialist
In the south, the "showdown" with fascism was under the
control of former fascists and allies. The CLN was paralyzed
here about whether to cooperate with the fascist-infected
monarchy. Strong forces within the bourgeoisie and among the
allies were evidently most interested in how to curb the red
popular resistance movement.
But the Italian partisan resistance - La Resistenza - did
not lead to Yugoslav socialism or Greek civil war. In March
1944, Stalin recognized the reactionary Badoglio government
and this confused both the Allies and most Communists. But
just these days, the tactical master Togliatti returned from
Moscow. He assembled the leaders of the PCI and managed to
convince them that it was necessary to join the Badoglio
government along with all the other anti-fascist parties.
The requirement that the kingdom be abolished did not have
to be a crucial condition.
The term "turning point in Salerno" has since become not
only the term for the formation of the government in Salerno
in April 1944, but also a key word for the foundation and
main line of the post-war PCI strategy. Through its strong
efforts in the resistance and through Togliatti's maneuvers,
PCI managed to make a big impact. The PCI was now aiming to
become "a mass party of a new type" that could lead
political struggle within the parliamentary system. The Left
parties considered it a great victory when the monarchy was
rejected by a referendum in 1946. It succeeded in creating a
formally progressive constitution. It was PCI who was the
most eager advocate for it. But it was the Christian
Democrats and the Liberals who secured the control of
economic and social reconstruction and thereby gained the
power to decide,
As in other Western European countries, the Cold War led
to the removal of the Communists from the government. After
a fierce anti-communist election campaign in 1948, in which
the pope banished Catholics who supported the popular front
as PCI and PSI had formed, the Christian Democratic Party,
led by Alcide de Gasperi, gained 48% of the vote and an
absolute majority in parliament. The election was the start
of over 40 years of Christian democratic hegemony in Italy.
In May of that year, Christian Democrat Luigi Einaudi was
elected the country's first president.
The unit trade union movement - CGIL - was split in 1948,
which further weakened the fighting force of the labor
movement. The CIA and the US government were directly
involved in the events leading to the creation of the
national organizations CISL (Christian Democrats) and UIL
(Social Democrats and Republicans). The impact was made
through the North American trade union AFL-CIO, which was
tasked with supporting and funding the "free" trade union
movement - not only in Europe but also in Latin America,
Africa and Asia.
Rome - cultural life
Rome has a rich and diverse cultural life, ranging in size from large state
art museums to small private galleries and from music institutions such as the
Teatro dell'Opera, the Accademia di Santa Cecilia and the Teatro Argentina to
small modern venues and experimental stages. A fixed point in the city's
cultural life is the festival l'estate romana ('the Roman summer'),
which offers concerts, theater performances and films, often in the open air. In
addition, the lavish outdoor opera performances that previously took place
in Caracalla's terms, but today take place in the Borghese Garden for the sake
of preserving the ruins. Rome is also the center of the Italian film industry,
anchored in the film city of Cinecittą, and for the state television channels.
The importance of Rome as the center of gravity of European cultural history
applies in particular to the humanities such as history, architecture, art and
classical music. Academies, scientific institutes and extensive book collections
and libraries, such as the Vatican Library, exert a significant attraction on
researchers, artists and the general public. The city's role as a
cultural-historical attraction dates back to the 1400's and 1500's. At that time,
Rome became a regular destination for both European princes and artists who
sought learning and education. However, the city's status as Europe's aesthetic
capital was not really established until the beginning of the 19th century, when
the city became home to a steadily growing colony of northern European artists,
from Denmark, among others. Bertel Thorvaldsen and HC Andersen. The artists
found inspiration in the encounter with the relics of antiquity, the clear light
and the foreign life of the people. See also Grand prix de Rome.
Rome has a significant fashion industry with prestigious brands such as Fendi
and Krizia, although Milan is a leader in the field. A distinctive feature is
also the many distinguished men's and women's equipment shops with roots in
Rome's strong craft traditions.
The town does not have a distinct entertainment district, but Trastevere and
the former meat town of Monte Testaccio are rich in music and dance venues. You
can find large, hectic discos as well as piano bars and nightclubs.
Like all other parts of Italy, the city also has its own cuisine,
characterized by the area's tradition of shepherding rather than
agriculture; one of the most famous classical Roman dishes is abbacchio
lamb that has not had time to graze). The popular Roman cuisine is also
characterized by strong and spicy meat dishes, where you like to use the "fifth
quarter" (the entrails) and other rather misunderstood parts of the animals.
Rome - cultural life, music
By virtue of the importance Rome has had for Christianity, church music in
particular has over time been influenced by the currents emanating from the
city. The ancient Roman song was thus influenced by the Gallic tradition of the
700's, developed for the Gregorian chant. Likewise, the vocal polyphonic style
cultivated in several of the city's churches, known as the Roman school, became
the norm for numerous composers, even far beyond Italy's borders. In genres such
as sonata and concerto grosso (Arcangelo Corelli), oratorio (Giacomo Carissimi),
worldly cantata and especially opera (among others Luigi Rossi, Alessandro
Scarlatti, later Gioacchino Rossini and Giuseppe Verdi), the musical life of
Rome has played a prominent role. Conversely, numerous foreign composers and
musicians have resided in Rome for shorter or longer periods of time (including
Georg Friedrich Händel, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Hector Berlioz, Richard
Wagner, Peter Heise, and Claude Debussy). The city's important music
institutions include the Accademia di Santa Cecilia and the Accademia
Filarmonica Romana, founded in 1821 for concert and opera performances.