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Italy

Yearbook 2000

2000 ItalyItaly. In April, Italy received his 58th government since the Second World War following a government crisis in the surge following the regional elections, where the right stepped forward sharply while the left-wing coalition government pushed back. The election campaign before the regional elections was lifted to a major political level, mainly by the rocky TV magnate, the right-wing opposition leader and Italy's former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, who poured money into the campaign, of all things to judge for a political comeback in the parliamentary elections in 2001. Berlusconi has previously convicted of tax fraud, corruption and embezzlement, and only I's ineffective legal system has prevented him from going to prison. In February, however, he was acquitted of having forged documents in 1987 in connection with the purchase of a film distribution company.

According to COUNTRYAAH, shortly after the defeat in the regional elections, Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema filed his and the government's resignation application. He was succeeded by Finance Minister Giuliano Amato, and Italy avoided the new election required by the right. The Left Coalition agreed late last summer to appoint Rome's dynamic mayor Francesco Rutelli to lead its upcoming election campaign. At the end of May, a referendum was held on a new electoral law that would make it difficult for small parties to enter Parliament. However, the vote had to be declared invalid because so few Italians went to the ballot boxes.

The Right's success in Italy and the fears of an upcoming right-wing government there created concern in the EU. Berlusconi could not form a right-wing government without the support of Umberto Bossi's separatist party, Lega Nord. Bossi has previously engaged in pleading to dissolve the nation-state of Italy, breaking off the rich northern part from the poor south and forming the independent country of Paldania. When he discovered that he was not getting enough support, he embarked on xenophobia as the populist he is.

According to a new law at the beginning of the year, the Italian fathers were granted the right to child leave. According to the law, during the child's first eight years, parents can share a parental leave of just under ten months.

2000 Italy

WW2

Mussolini's foreign policy was concentrated on the conquest of colonies. In 1936, Italy invaded Ethiopia, and a year later, the East African Italian Empire was formed. During the Spanish Civil War, closer ties were established with Hitler Germany and the Rome-Berlin axis was formed. In April 1939, Italian troops conquered Albania.

World War II crushed fascist rule. The war became a military disaster for the fascists. When the Allies landed in Sicily in the summer of 1943, Mussolini was excluded by the fascist High Council. The king elected one of the members of this assembly, Marshal Badoglio, as new head of government. In September 1943, Italy was forced into unconditional surrender and the Anglo-American forces took control of southern Italy. Northern Italy remained under German occupation until April 25, 1945.

This division of the country had major political consequences. In both the north and the south, national liberation committees (CLNs) existed in all the major cities. The CLN was composed of representatives of all the anti-fascist parties. In the north, the leftist party movement led to a radical radicalization of the population. In the liberated areas, the fascists were replaced with democratically elected popular bodies. Businesses and land were occupied. Many partisans hoped and believed that the fight against Nazi fascism should lead to a socialist society.

In the south, the "showdown" with fascism was under the control of former fascists and allies. The CLN was paralyzed here about whether to cooperate with the fascist-infected monarchy. Strong forces within the bourgeoisie and among the allies were evidently most interested in how to curb the red popular resistance movement.

But the Italian partisan resistance - La Resistenza - did not lead to Yugoslav socialism or Greek civil war. In March 1944, Stalin recognized the reactionary Badoglio government and this confused both the Allies and most Communists. But just these days, the tactical master Togliatti returned from Moscow. He assembled the leaders of the PCI and managed to convince them that it was necessary to join the Badoglio government along with all the other anti-fascist parties. The requirement that the kingdom be abolished did not have to be a crucial condition.

The term "turning point in Salerno" has since become not only the term for the formation of the government in Salerno in April 1944, but also a key word for the foundation and main line of the post-war PCI strategy. Through its strong efforts in the resistance and through Togliatti's maneuvers, PCI managed to make a big impact. The PCI was now aiming to become "a mass party of a new type" that could lead political struggle within the parliamentary system. The Left parties considered it a great victory when the monarchy was rejected by a referendum in 1946. It succeeded in creating a formally progressive constitution. It was PCI who was the most eager advocate for it. But it was the Christian Democrats and the Liberals who secured the control of economic and social reconstruction and thereby gained the power to decide,

As in other Western European countries, the Cold War led to the removal of the Communists from the government. After a fierce anti-communist election campaign in 1948, in which the pope banished Catholics who supported the popular front as PCI and PSI had formed, the Christian Democratic Party, led by Alcide de Gasperi, gained 48% of the vote and an absolute majority in parliament. The election was the start of over 40 years of Christian democratic hegemony in Italy. In May of that year, Christian Democrat Luigi Einaudi was elected the country's first president.

The unit trade union movement - CGIL - was split in 1948, which further weakened the fighting force of the labor movement. The CIA and the US government were directly involved in the events leading to the creation of the national organizations CISL (Christian Democrats) and UIL (Social Democrats and Republicans). The impact was made through the North American trade union AFL-CIO, which was tasked with supporting and funding the "free" trade union movement - not only in Europe but also in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

Rome - cultural life

Rome has a rich and diverse cultural life, ranging in size from large state art museums to small private galleries and from music institutions such as the Teatro dell'Opera, the Accademia di Santa Cecilia and the Teatro Argentina to small modern venues and experimental stages. A fixed point in the city's cultural life is the festival l'estate romana ('the Roman summer'), which offers concerts, theater performances and films, often in the open air. In addition, the lavish outdoor opera performances that previously took place in Caracalla's terms, but today take place in the Borghese Garden for the sake of preserving the ruins. Rome is also the center of the Italian film industry, anchored in the film city of Cinecittą, and for the state television channels.

The importance of Rome as the center of gravity of European cultural history applies in particular to the humanities such as history, architecture, art and classical music. Academies, scientific institutes and extensive book collections and libraries, such as the Vatican Library, exert a significant attraction on researchers, artists and the general public. The city's role as a cultural-historical attraction dates back to the 1400's and 1500's. At that time, Rome became a regular destination for both European princes and artists who sought learning and education. However, the city's status as Europe's aesthetic capital was not really established until the beginning of the 19th century, when the city became home to a steadily growing colony of northern European artists, from Denmark, among others. Bertel Thorvaldsen and HC Andersen. The artists found inspiration in the encounter with the relics of antiquity, the clear light and the foreign life of the people. See also Grand prix de Rome.

Rome has a significant fashion industry with prestigious brands such as Fendi and Krizia, although Milan is a leader in the field. A distinctive feature is also the many distinguished men's and women's equipment shops with roots in Rome's strong craft traditions.

The town does not have a distinct entertainment district, but Trastevere and the former meat town of Monte Testaccio are rich in music and dance venues. You can find large, hectic discos as well as piano bars and nightclubs.

Like all other parts of Italy, the city also has its own cuisine, characterized by the area's tradition of shepherding rather than agriculture; one of the most famous classical Roman dishes is abbacchio (baby lamb that has not had time to graze). The popular Roman cuisine is also characterized by strong and spicy meat dishes, where you like to use the "fifth quarter" (the entrails) and other rather misunderstood parts of the animals.

Rome - cultural life, music

By virtue of the importance Rome has had for Christianity, church music in particular has over time been influenced by the currents emanating from the city. The ancient Roman song was thus influenced by the Gallic tradition of the 700's, developed for the Gregorian chant. Likewise, the vocal polyphonic style cultivated in several of the city's churches, known as the Roman school, became the norm for numerous composers, even far beyond Italy's borders. In genres such as sonata and concerto grosso (Arcangelo Corelli), oratorio (Giacomo Carissimi), worldly cantata and especially opera (among others Luigi Rossi, Alessandro Scarlatti, later Gioacchino Rossini and Giuseppe Verdi), the musical life of Rome has played a prominent role. Conversely, numerous foreign composers and musicians have resided in Rome for shorter or longer periods of time (including Georg Friedrich Händel, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Hector Berlioz, Richard Wagner, Peter Heise, and Claude Debussy). The city's important music institutions include the Accademia di Santa Cecilia and the Accademia Filarmonica Romana, founded in 1821 for concert and opera performances.

 

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