Nauru is a small oval island located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country was annexed by Germany in 1888 and Australia took control in 1914. After World War II, Nauru was jointly administered by Australia, Britain and New Zealand until independence was gained in 1968. It was a long time since the country had a very stable economy thanks to the phosphate deposits. found here. Phosphate is used as a fertilizer and Australia has been one of Nauru’s largest customers. As this is a resource that is being completely depleted, Nauru’s economic future is uncertain.
The capital of Nauru is called Yaren and the official language of the country is Nauran while many speak English. The population was measured in 2011 to be around 9,378 and thus it can be said that this is one of the world’s smallest countries both in terms of population and area. Naurus’ total area is estimated at about 21 square kilometers.
Geography and climate
Nauru is an island located about 42 kilometers south of the equator. The island is surrounded by a coral reef that can be seen protruding above the surface at low tide. It is due to the reef that a port has never been established but there are openings and canals that make it possible to get to the island in smaller boats. The island’s highest point at 71 meters is located on the central plateau and is called Command Ridge. Along the coast of the island, the ground is fertile and here coconut palms grow. Banana, pineapple and pandanus trees grow around the Buada lagoon.
What characterizes a large part of the island’s environment is the extraction of phosphorus that has been going on for so long. Phosphorus was extracted on the central plateau, which today consists of empty terrain with uneven limestone peaks that can reach up to 15 meters in height. Phosphorus extraction has deprived and destroyed about 80 percent of the island’s land area and it is believed that about 40 percent of the marine life around the island has also been destroyed by the waste from mining.
To get fresh water, you collect rainwater on the roofs because there are not many natural freshwater sources on the island. Because of this, there are three different desalination plants on Nauru. According to bridgat, the climate on the island is hot and humid. The rainy season with monsoons is between November and February. How much it rains varies and it happens that the island is exposed to drought in some years. As this is an island, you are very sensitive to climate change and changes in sea level.
In the early 1980s, Naurus’ economy peaked. This was due to the phosphate extraction. When the phosphate has slowly dried up, they have not managed to replace it with anything else as there are not so many other natural resources on the island. During the 1990s, Nauru tried to act as a tax haven, but this project was discontinued in 2004. Today, unemployment on the island is very high and those who have jobs work mostly in the public sector.