History of Tyrol, Austria

History of Tyrol, Austria

Tyrol, Austrian federal state with anarea of12,640 km 2 and 751,200 residents; The capital is Innsbruck. Tyrol is a mountainous country in the Northern Limestone Alps and in the Central Alps. About two thirds of the area is pasture and woodland. Accordingly, livestock, dairy and forestry are important branches of the economy. Arable farming is practiced in the Inn Valley. Tourism is important. Tyrol has iron, glass, clothing, chemical and food industries.

History: The area inhabited by Celts became 16/15 BC. BC Roman. Slavs and Alemanni were ousted by the Baiern (Bavarians) in the 6th century; In 788 Tyrol came to the Franconian Empire and in 1363 into the possession of the Habsburgs. In 1805 it had to be ceded to Bavaria. The Tyroleans rose against the Franco-Bavarian rule in 1809 under Andreas Hofer. In 1814 the country came back to Austria. After the First World War fell South Tyrol to Italy. The governor has been the ÖVP politician Günther Platter (* 1954) since 2008.


The alpine catchment area of ​​the Lech, Inn, Drau and Etsch was initially inhabited by Illyrians, from the end of the 5th century BC. Celts penetrated there on their migrations and became settled. The Romans subjugated the area and divided it into 16/15 BC. The provinces of Raetia and Noricum as well as (southern part) of the region Venetia et Histria. Later the Alemanni, Slavs and Lombards invaded and were ousted by the Bavarians in the 6th to 8th centuries. The Bavarian rule finally extended in the south to Bozen and the Pustertal. 788 the territory of was Charlemagne the Incorporated Franconian Empire. After Otto I the Great had incorporated Italy into the (nascent) Holy Roman Empire, in 952 he subordinated the Mark Verona to the Duchy of Bavaria, which it lost to the newly founded Duchy of Carinthia in 976. Between 1004 and 1094 the Carolingian counties north and south of the Brenner Pass came to the bishops of Brixen and Trento. Since the 11th century the Counts of Eppan, the Counts of Andechs (since 1180 Dukes of Merania) and the Counts of Tyrol sought their ancestral seat near Meran (Tyrol) the area bears its current name after the reign until the Counts of Tyrol won the bailiwicks of the Hochstifte Trient (middle of the 12th century) and Brixen (1210) and in 1248 after the Andechs-Meranians died out, their count or duke rights. With the death of Albert III. In 1253, when the Counts of Tyrol died out, the land fell as an inheritance to the Counts of Gorizia, who have been since Meinhard III. (in Tyrol Meinhard I.; * around 1200/05, † 1258) named Counts of Gorizia and Tyrol and divided into the lines Gorizia and Tyrol in 1271 (Meinhardiner). Among them, the cities of Bozen, Meran, Trient, Brixen and Innsbruck flourished. During her reign, Tyrol became a unit under land law; A rural community has been provable since 1289, and in 1305 King Albrecht I granted Tyrol sovereignty. Socially free and able-bodied farming communities and courts emerged, which from the 14th century were represented as a separate curia in the state parliaments.

In 1363 Margarete Maultasch gave Tyrol, with the consent of the estates, to her Habsburg cousin Duke Rudolf IV, the founder, of Austria. His nephew, Duke Friedrich IV., Who had been Count of Tyrol since 1406 but was only able to assert himself against King Siegmund and the Tyrolean nobles since 1418, moved his residence from Meran to Innsbruck in 1420. Under his rule, the country flourished through salt and silver ore mining (1486 first expression of a silver equivalent for the gold guilder, the thaler). By the end of the Middle Ages, the German language border shifted to the Salurner Klause to the south, while German language islands can be found as far as the Trento area. – From the 15th century, Tyrol was regarded as a “prince county”.

Tyrol: administrative structure

Tyrol: Administrative structure (1.1. 2018)
Administrative unit Area (in km 2) Ew. Ew. (per km 2)
political district
Imst 1 725 59 600 35
Innsbruck country 1,990 177 800 89
Kitzbühel 1 163 63 700 55
Kufstein 970 108 500 112
Landeck 1 595 44 400 28
Lienz (= East Tyrol) 2 020 48 800 24
Reutte 1 237 32 500 26th
black 1 843 83 300 45
City with its own statute
innsbruck 105 132 500 1 263

After the future Emperor Maximilian I acquired Tyrol in 1490, the south and north-east borders were established. In the Landshut War of Succession he won the regional courts of Kitzbühel, Kufstein and Rattenberg from Bavaria in 1505; as early as 1500 it had come into the possession of the county of Gorizia. In 1525 the Peasants’ War spread to Tyrol (M. Gaismair). In 1564 a Tyrolean line of the House of Austria (Habsburg) was formed, which resided in Innsbruck until it died out in 1665. Afterwards, Emperor Leopold I united all the Habsburg lands in his hand. The country’s economic prosperity declined in the 18th century when mining stopped.

In 1803 the two Hochstifte Brixen and Trient were secularized and united with Tyrol; In 1805 Tyrol fell to Bavaria. Under A. Hofer (and J. Haspinger, P. Mayr and J. Speckbacher) there was an uprising in April 1809, which after initial successes by Bavarian, French and Italian troops on November 1, 1809 in the last battle on Bergisel was suppressed (Tyrolean freedom fight); Tyrol was divided. The north came to Bavaria, the south to the Kingdom of Italy, the east became part of the Illyrian Provinces (Illyria), but in 1814 the entire country again fell to Austria. In the peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) Austria had to cede the area of ​​Tyrol south of the Brenner Pass to Italy (South Tyrol); the rest of Tyrol formed the Austrian state of Tyrol in 1919-38, after the “annexation” of Austria to the German Reich (1938) together with Vorarlberg a “Gau” of the German Reich. After the reestablishment of the Republic of Austria (1945), it became – within the limits of 1919 – an Austrian federal state again (Land ordinance from 1953). – The leading party is the ÖVP (Tyrolean People’s Party), which also co- operates with Hans Tschiggfrey (* 1904, † 1963; 1957–63), Eduard Wallnöfer (* 1913, † 1989; 1963–87), Alois Partl (* 1929; 1987– 93), Wendelin Weingartner (* 1937; 1993–2002), Herwig van Staa (* 1942; 2002-08) and Günther Platter (* 1954; since 2008) provide the governor.

History of Tyrol, Austria