The foundation of Alexandria is associated with the famous conqueror Alexander the Great. The need to create a new center of culture and science in Egypt was based on the need to replace the Hellenistic link connecting the Greek Peninsula and the Nile River valley. This city began to gain its rapid development after the destruction of another well-known center of those times – Tyra. After 30 years, Ancient Egyptian Alexandria reached dimensions exceeding Carthogen itself.
Alexandria, located on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, is the second largest city in Egypt and a historically significant place. The city resembles the cities of Turkey or Greece. It is also known as the “Pearl of the Mediterranean” andlocated in northern Egypt. It is the second largest city in Egypt. It has a long and colorful history and is constantly growing in importance as it hosts Egypt’s most important port.
The city was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. The city is also named after him. Already in ancient times, Alexandria was a large city. The Library of Alexandria was the largest of ancient times, in which all the philosophers and scientists of that time sought information.
Throughout history, the city has also been conquered by the Romans and Persians. Napoleon controlled the city from 1798–1801. Since the time of Napoleon, the city has been bombed by the British and Israelis. Traces of the conquerors of each era are still visible.
Today, Alexandria is not only a major cargo hub, but also a popular holiday destination. The city attracts both those who are interested in history and those who love the beach. Its sandy beaches are traditionally popular with both local and foreign tourists, but recently the security situation in Egypt has reduced interest in this destination.
The city has a Mediterranean climate characterized by dry, hot summers and rainy, mild winters. January and February are the coolest months with temperatures of 12-18 degrees. On the other hand, July and August are the hottest months with an average temperature of around 30 degrees. The best time to visit is spring and autumn when the temperature is around 22 degrees.
Alexandria is the city with the largest port in Egypt. It is located on the Mediterranean coast. About 4.5 million people live in Alexandria. The city is the cultural capital of Egypt, an important scientific, commercial and industrial center.
This Egyptian city plays the role of the Arab tourist capital. This was decided to be done during a meeting of the Tourism Council of the Arab Ministry. Alexandria thus surpassed 11 other Arab cities claiming the same name.
The idea of honoring Alexandria is an initiative of the League of Arab States, which, by awarding this honor to a city, seeks every year to draw attention to the unique character, customs and traditions of each of them. The purpose of the new initiative is to show the great tourist value of Arab cities and their significant role in the development of the local tourism industry.
Alexandria is currently the second largest city in Egypt. In 2008, the Alexandria agglomeration had 4.5 million inhabitants, making the city the sixth largest urban center in Africa. The city lies on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, is the largest port of this country, an important industrial, commercial and scientific center and the cultural capital of Egypt.
Alexandria has been chosen as a tourist capital due to its extremely rich history dating back to the days of ancient civilizations. Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic culture have provided the city with abundance and left behind many characteristic and at the same time unique monuments, such as Pompey’s Column (Amoud Al-Swari), Catacombs of Kom Al-Shugafa, Qaitbaya Citadel, Ancient Roman Amphitheater, Artistic Greco-Roman Museum and the Royal Jewelery Museum. Alexandria is also known for places of worship such as the Abu al-Abbas Mosque. However, the most important place in Alexandria is the Library of Alexandria, which is one of the most valuable cultural assets of humanity in the Arab world.
Alexandria is also unique in terms of weather because it has a wonderful climate in both summer and winter, while at the same time offering beautiful beaches along the Mediterranean coast. This contributes to the dynamic development of recreation and leisure infrastructure.
The city offers tourists many casual attractions: cultural events, conferences, festivals, exhibitions or events promoting sea tourism. The richness of the various cultural, sports, entertainment and tourism events held is of great interest and attracts even the most demanding tourists.
The city owes its worldwide fame to the Library of Alexandria, which was the largest library in the entire ancient world. Presumably it was founded in the third century BC during the reign of King Ptolemy II. The first object was the Temple of the Muse or the Museum, in which a real museum arose. During its long history, the library has fallen victim to fire several times, and the restoration of burnt manuscripts has been very costly and sometimes impossible. In 2003, the modern Library of Alexandria began operating in the same location as the former library.
At the beginning of Christianity, Alexandria was one of the four most important cities in the Mediterranean basin for the new faith. Other important places for Christians at that time were: Antioch of Syria, Constantinople and Rome. In ancient times, Alexandria was the most important scientific center of the world – the weapon of this city in the struggle for influence was not the sword, but the mind. In Roman times, it was the second largest city of the empire – in the second century BC, about 500,000 inhabitants lived in Alexandria. Two thousand years after a catastrophic fire that consumed a huge part of the library’s resources, a modern scientific and cultural center was opened in its place, cultivating old traditions.
Of the ancient monuments, in addition to the Library of Alexandria, it is necessary to mention two more important places – the first of them is the no longer existing lighthouse on the island of Pharos, located at the entrance to the port. This building warned sailors against tricky coastal rocks and shoals. It was the tallest building in the ancient world and was considered one of the wonders of the world in ancient times, but strong earthquakes in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries AD destroyed it. Currently, on the island of Faros, there is a defensive structure – the Kite Bay Fortress.
Another interesting ancient object is also a labyrinth of underground catacombs, open to visitors, where the former inhabitants of Alexandria are buried on several floors of a cemetery carved into the rocks. Some graves contain life-size statues that protect the dead.
The city used to be located on a narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean Sea and coastal Lake Maryut, on the western edge of the Nile Delta, but its huge development has caused residential areas to spread around, forming one of the six largest metropolitan areas in Africa.