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United States

Yearbook 2000

USA. The election year began with the large nomination meeting in Iowa January 24, the first major consideration of which candidates the parties would stand for in the presidential election. As expected, George W. Bush received most of the Republican votes, and Vice President Al Gore won the vote among Democrats. Now Bill Clinton's last year as president also began, which was marked especially on January 27 as he delivered his seventh and final greeting speech at the opening of Congress. In an 89-minute speech, Clinton highlighted in particular the financial successes achieved, noting that during his time in power, the United States has enjoyed the longest period of uninterrupted economic growth in the country's history.

2000 United StatesThe battle over who would be named to the party's presidential candidates intensified when John McCain won over George W. Bush in the Republican poll in New Hampshire Feb. 1. Vice President Al Gore defeated his toughest opponent, but won by just 4% over Bill Bradley.

According to COUNTRYAAH, the presidential campaigns rolled on. On February 26, it was reported that Bush had already spent $ 60 million since early January and now had only $ 10 million left to pay for the election campaign against McCain, who received an increasingly generous contribution to his campaign after the New Hampshire victory in January. But in the primary elections in March 13, "Super Tuesday," both George W. Bush and Al Gore won reassuring victories over the toughest opponents.

It would be late in the fall before Bush and Gore were officially named the party's presidential candidates, but George W. Bush set out early in the summer to explain the key points of his policy to voters and also tried to address those who criticized him for lack of experience when it comes to foreign and defense policy.

The process against data giant Microsoft, which has been accused of abusing its monopoly position, drew attention from the presidential election campaign in early April. The trial dragged on over time, and the uncertainty about how the court would judge caused the value of Microsoft's shares to fall sharply, bringing other high-tech stocks with it in the case. The Nasdaq exchange fell by 7% on April 3 and the full 13% the following day. Distrust of the technology companies was fueled by concern that these shares were consistently overvalued.

On June 7, the judge in the case against Microsoft ruled that the company held a monopoly position and abused its position of power in the market. Microsoft was now ordered to split itself into two separate companies: one that produces the Windows system and one that produces the software, Microsoft's computer software.

On July 25, George W. Bush announced that he had elected Dick Cheney, 59, as his vice presidential candidate. Bush was officially elected Republican presidential candidate at the Philadelphia Convention on July 31-August 3.

A few days later, Al Gore announced that he had elected Senator Joseph Lieberman, 58, as his vice presidential candidate. Lieberman thus became the first Jewish Vice Presidential candidate nominated by one of the major political parties in the United States. Gore was formally named the Democratic Party presidential candidate at the Democratic Party Convention in Los Angeles August 14-17.

In early September, opinion polls showed increased support for Al Gore, and he was no longer criticized for being dull and lacking in leadership qualities. Concerned Republicans now criticized George W. Bush for not making his tax cut plans clear enough among voters.

It was only when the results of the presidential election (November 7) became clear that it turned out that there was almost a smooth run between the two presidential candidates. Al Gore won the most votes with 50,158,094 votes, while Bush received 49,820,518 votes. But Bush won a tight majority in Florida with about 1,000 votes, thereby gaining the state's 25 electoral votes, which made the decision (Bush received 271 and Gore 267 electoral votes). Democrats argued that the voting bill had not gone right and demanded that Florida ballots be recalculated by hand. Florida's Supreme Court twice ruled in favor of the Democrats, but the Washington Supreme Court did not accept the verdict. After five weeks, one of the longest and bitterest election battles in American history, a majority (five to four) of the Supreme Court judge ruled that George W.

The election campaign caused great bitterness, and the new president was faced with the difficult task of uniting the country. Bush decided to act quickly, and attempts at reconciliation could be seen in the initial appointments to the new administration. The appointments of Colin Powell as Foreign Minister and Condoleezza Rice as national security policy adviser - the first blacks on these posts and Rice additionally women - were welcomed by the Democrats.

Bill Clinton ended his time as president with a trip to Northern Ireland, where he was received with great warmth and enthusiasm. His involvement in the peace process in the violence-ravaged province is one of his greatest foreign policy successes. While Clinton is preparing for a life outside the White House, wife Hillary has seriously entered the political arena. She won this fall's senatorial election in New York and predicted a future as a colorful and successful politician.

2000 United States

Congress

Congress has two chambers: the 100-member Senate - two from each state, regardless of state size. The Vice President is the chairman of the Senate, and his vote is decisive. The House of Representatives has 435 members - from one to just over 40 representatives from each state, by population. Alaska and North Dakota have one representative each, while California has 43.

The election to Congress takes place every two years. The Senate elects one third of its members every time - for a term of six years - while all members of the House of Representatives are up for election every other year. The legislative power is formally placed in Congress, and most decisions must pass through both chambers. Certain cases - such as agreements with foreign powers - must be approved in the Senate only. However, with a 2/3 majority. The Senate also has some approving authority over the president - in his election of government members, Supreme Court judges and ambassadors. The first right has been through a prolonged erosion on the part of a number of presidents - in that the agreements are no longer concluded as formal treaties, but as informal negotiating agreements and as looser agreements that only the president or members of the government sign.

In recent decades, however, the Senate has shown some willingness for greater control over the president's foreign policy actions. This new will for control is partly a consequence of the Vietnam War and the fact that a number of the decisions that made the United States increasingly engaged in the war were made by the president without formal approval of Congress.

Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the third powerhouse in the United States, and its role is stronger than in other countries. The nine judges are appointed by the president for life, but the appointment must be approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court has asserted the right to test the constitutional validity of enacted laws of Congress and other administrative or private decisions. In this way, the Constitution has been altered to a much greater extent through Supreme Court judgments and interpretations of law than through formal amendments.

The classic examples apply to the situation of the blacks. It was a Supreme Court ruling - Plessy versus Fergusson - which, before the turn of the century, affirmed racial segregation policy in the southern states as legal and compatible with the United States Constitution. And it was the Supreme Court ruling in 1954 - Brown versus the Board of Education, Topeka - which declared the racial segregation in schools unconstitutional, and provided a kind of clear message for the intense opposition that followed the racism in North American society.

The Court has played different roles in North American politics - depending on its changing composition. During the New Deal period, it was dominated by conservative business ideology and knew a number of President Roosevelt's constitutional reform efforts. Roosevelt then threatened to expand the number of judges and appoint some new more progressive judges. It remained at the threat, but probably had some effect, and when Roosevelt was generally given the opportunity to appoint some more liberal judges, the court changed its character during and after the war.

In the 1950's and 1960's, the court was dominated by Supreme Court Judge Earl Warren's almost liberal legal views, and supported many decisions that protected minority rights and supported reforms in criminal cases. In the 1970's, the court again gained a conservative majority, through judges appointed by President Nixon and chaired by the conservative lawyer, Warren Burger.

In December 2000, the Republican Court of Justice ruled that George W. Bush had won the presidential election in the country, despite counterpart Al Gore having received million more votes.

 

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