Oceania (Prehistory & History - Prehistoric Communities)
The pre-European communities in Oceania were unscrupulous
and consistently small. Aborigines in Australia lived in
egalitarian groups where only older men played a leading
role. In most Melanesian village communities, informal
leaders competed for power and influence, but in the
Polynesian and Micronesian territories there was a
hereditary ranking that could take the form of powerful
chief judges. As a result of the European influence, the
1800s developed. states with kings in Hawaii, Tahiti and
Apart from Australia, where hunting and gathering was the
main basis, subsistence economies in Oceania were based on
root crops and tree crops combined with coastal fisheries as
well as in many places pig farming and hunting. The
technology was based on hand power and rocks or shells from
marine animals. Migratory animals, cattle, grains and metals
were first introduced by Europeans. The wide spread of
communities in diverse natural environments led to political
fragmentation and a diversity of cultural adaptations, but
at the same time social and cultural communities based on
trade and marriage exchanges were created within larger
regions. A famous example is the ceremonial bullet
exchange system, which integrated the Trobrians and other
islands of New Guinea NE into a community.
Oceania (Prehistory & History - Migrations)
There is still a great deal of uncertainty about
Oceania's prehistory, but some probable headlines can be
drawn. More than 40,000 years ago, Australian hunters and
gatherers in simple vessels forced the waters around the
Wallac line between Borneo and Sulawesi and settled in New
Guinea and Australia. The descendants of these people have
gradually spread throughout most of Melanesia. Around 3000
BC the first Mongolian and Austronesian-speaking people from
the Southeast Asian islands penetrated Melanesia. Their
culture included agricultural cultivation with simple tools
and pig teams, forms of business, which also the Australians
in the Melanesian area seem to have developed. The
Austronesians spread to most of the Melanesian islands, and
there was cultural contact with the Papuan peoples. through
poisoning. According to
Countryaah.com, Australia is the largest
countries in the continent of Oceania.
Austronesian coastal settlements in the Melanesian area,
particularly characterized by distinctive lapita
clays and the ability to build and sail canoes, are dated to
ca. 1500 BC From these peoples came the first who settled on
Fiji and in Western Polynesia around 1300 BC. Starting with
Tonga and Samoa, the gradual spread of people to all other
parts of Polynesia continued. Easter Island was reached
300-500 AD, Hawaii approx. 650, and New Zealand approx. 700.
It is likely that the peoples of Central and Eastern
Micronesia are also direct descendants of Austronesian
lapite peoples from Melanesia or Western Polynesia, while
Western Micronesia has probably been populated from the
islands of Southeast Asia.
Marshall Islands History
The Marshall Islands were gradually populated some 2,000
to 1,800 years ago, shortly after the country's rise as a
result of falling sea levels. The settlement of the Marshall
Islands was part of the expansion of population in far-off
Oceania, and the early settlers probably came from the
northern Solomon Islands via Central Micronesia. In 1526 the
Spanish Alonso de Salazar came to the islands, but Spain did
not colonize them. The islands were named after British
Captain John Marshall in 1788. Whalers and traders visited
the islands in the early 1800s. The Marshall Islands were
officially annexed by Germany in 1885, and were incorporated
into German New Guinea in 1906.
Japan occupied the Marshall Islands during World War I
and colonized the islands. In 1919, the islands became a
Japanese mandate area, as a Class C mandate, through the
League of Nations. During the 1930s, the Japanese built
airports on several atolls. In 1944, US forces occupied the
In 1947, the archipelago was a member of the United
States Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. In the years
1946-1958, the United States used the atolls Bikini and
Enewetak as test fields for nuclear explosions. The first
hydrogen bomb was tested in the Enewetak Atoll in 1952, and
the Americans established a military base on the Kwajalein
Marshall Islands gained internal autonomy in 1979 and US
supervision ceased when the islands gained full independence
in 1986. The Marshall Islands joined the UN in 1991.
Palau was populated more than 2,000 years ago probably by
people from the Philippines. Palau was possibly seen by
Europeans in 1543 and proven to be discovered in 1696. Palau
was subject to the General Captain's Philippines (Spanish
East India) from 1574. In 1885, Spanish supremacy over
Spanish East India was officially proclaimed and
internationally recognized. After the defeat of the
Spanish-American War, Spain sold Palau and most of the other
Carolines to the German Empire in 1899.
Palau was occupied by Japan in 1914. The United States
conquered the islands during World War II after the Battle
of Peleliu in 1944. From 1947, Palau was part of the United
States Pacific Oversight Area. When Micronesia's United
States was formed in 1979, Palau stayed away and became the
Republic of Palau in 1981. An association agreement with the
United States secured US financial assistance. Palau became
an independent nation on October 1, 1994; the country also
joined the UN.
Palau was negatively affected by the Asian financial
crisis in 1997. In 2009, Palau created the world's first
shark rescue area, at 600,000 square kilometers.
Cook Islands [kuʹk-], Cook Islands, PacificIsland Group, 3,000 km
northeast of New Zealand;237 km2, 17 900 residents (2018).The Cook
Islands are formally an independent country, but the archipelago is freely
connected to New Zealand (mainly in foreign policy and military matters).
The archipelago consists of 15 larger islands, divided into two groups. The
southern group includes 8 islands, both volcanic islands such as Rarotonga and
Mangaia and coral atolls, while the northern group consists of only atolls, e.g.
Penrhyn, Manihiki and Rakahanga. The climate is very rainy, and the islands have
plenty of marshland. The volcanic islands have a rich plant life and are quite
high. Tea Manga on Rarotonga reaches 652 m above sea level. The population is
Polynesian. Maori is the native language, but English is also used. The economy
is based on agriculture, i.a. cultivation of copra, southern fruits and cotton
for export, as well as fishing and tourism. At Rarotonga, where the main town of
Avarua is located, there are among other things. fruit canning and clothing
The Cook Islands were populated by Polynesians from Tonga and Samoa. The
islands were sifted in 1595 by Spanish mariners and charted by James Cook in
1773. They were ruled by British missionaries during the 19th century; In 1888
they became British protectors, and in 1901 they were incorporated with New
Zealand. Since 1962, the Cook Islands have had a gradually expanded internal
Cook Islands yearbook 2019
Cook Islands. In October, the government announced that the issue of a UN
membership would be shelved for the time being. Instead, the focus should be on
development work. The Cook Islands are formally an independent country but are
connected to New Zealand, whose government decides mainly on foreign policy
issues and has so far refused to support the Cook Islands' efforts to be
admitted into the UN.
During the year, a change of name was taken when a committee to prepare a new
name proposal was formed on the initiative of Chief Pa Marie Ariki. The Cook
Islands are named after the British explorer James Cook. Voices have been raised
to allow the archipelago to have a name for the variant of the Maori language
spoken on the islands. The idea of a name change was gently supported by both
the government and the opposition. In a 1994 referendum, a majority voted to
retain the name Cook Islands.
One of the most discussed issues during the year was whether to allow
chlorination of the drinking water on the main island of Rarotonga.
Cook Islands yearbook 2018
Cook Islands. Parliamentary elections were held in June and resulted in an
unclear parliamentary position. The Cook Islands Party (CIP), led by incumbent
Prime Minister Henry Puna, did not become the largest party but received a
smaller mandate (10 of 24) than the Democratic Party (DP). Thus, none of the
parties gained a majority. The Unified Cook Islands Movement (OCI) was given a
mandate and in addition two independent candidates were elected to Parliament.
The situation was further complicated by the fact that DP's party leader, Tina
Browne, failed to win in her constituency and thus got no parliamentary seat. In
several constituencies where the candidates were even, the votes were
recalculated. By cooperating with the OCI member and the two independent
parliamentarians, Puna and CIP were able to retain government power.
In January, Ada Rongomatane Ariki, the traditional queen on the island of
Atiu, passed away on one of the islands that are part of the state.
Cook Islands yearbook 2017
Cook Islands. In January, a record number of tourists reported to the island
nation last year. The almost 150,000 visitors were up 17%. The majority of
tourists came from New Zealand. As part of the celebration of International
Women's Day on March 8, about 70 women participated in "exercise parliament".
The event aimed to increase women's will and ability to participate in political
life. The Cook Islands have a stated goal of increasing female representation in
Parliament to 50% by 2030.
In July, a law was established that made the Marae Moana area one of the
world's largest marine nature reserves. During the year, a process was also
started to decriminalize homosexuality in the country. Gay acts between men have
been prohibited by law since 1969.
Cook Islands yearbook 2016
Cook Islands. The year was marked by conflicts both between the opposition
and the government and within the opposition. In March, Teina Bishop was elected
new opposition leader, but in July he was sentenced to court, charged with
corruption, and sentenced to 28 months in prison. He was replaced as leader of
the opposition by Rose Brown, who thus became the first woman in this position.
In June, Parliament assembled for the first time during the year. At a
parliamentary session that was not recognized by the government, Prime Minister
Henry Puna lost a vote of confidence and Rose Brown was appointed new head of
government. As a result, the parliament building was closed to prevent
opposition politicians from entering. The Cook Islands, which are formally
independent but freely connected to New Zealand, are part of the Commonwealth,
which is why a representative of the British Queen is in the country. Tom
Marsters, the Queen's representative since 2013, rejected the vote of
confidence, a decision accepted by the opposition. In July, Marster's assignment
was extended for another three years. In September, Peter Marshall was named New
Zealand's High Commissioner in the Cook Islands. He was expected to take office
in January 2017.
In October, a new fisheries agreement was signed that gives EU vessels the
exclusive right to fish in the Cook Islands' waters for four years. The
agreement has been harshly criticized by environmental activists in the Cook
Islands, and in May MPs from the opposition asked Sweden's then Deputy Minister
of Development, Isabella Lövin, known for her involvement in fisheries, to lobby
in the EU against the agreement.
Cook Islands yearbook 2015
Cook Islands. In August, the Cook Islands celebrated the 50th anniversary of
the archipelago's independence. However, the Cook Islands are freely connected
to New Zealand, and a delegation from this country attended the solemn ceremony
to confirm the special condition of the states.
In the same month, Cook Islands Prime Minister Henry Puna was re-elected as
party leader for the Cook Islands party. He defeated the challenger over the
post of Teariki Heather, who, after the loss, still remained as Deputy Prime
Minister. On the other hand, there was a shift on the party leader post in
Parliament's second largest party, the Democratic Party, when Wilkie Rasmussen
resigned in April. He was replaced by William "Smiley" Heather, older brother of
In June, the Cook Islands became a member of the International Labor
Organization (ILO), which was welcomed by union leader Anthony Turua, who called
membership a milestone.