Nepal. According to
COUNTRYAAH, the Maoist uprising that has been going on since
1996 continued to plague Nepal, and towards the end of the
year, the revolt was reported to have claimed around 1,500
lives since its inception. Many of the victims were cops on
individually located posts. At the same time, both the
guerrillas and the government declared themselves willing to
negotiate. The first meetings took place in October under
mutual suspicion, and no concrete progress was reported.
The uprising indirectly contributed to the government
under Krishna Prasad Bhattarai being forced to resign in
March following an internal revolt within the ruling
Congress party. A new Prime Minister was appointed
76-year-old Girija Prasad Koirala, who has held the same
post three times before.
In June, the government banned the tourism industry from
employing children under 14 as a labor force. In July, debt
slavery was banned, a form of life trait where whole
families are forced into so low-paying work for a landowner
or industrial owner that they can never pay off the debts
they are forced to take to live. The phenomenon had existed
for generations, but only since hundreds of debt slaves
traveled to Kathmandu to publicly demand their freedom did
the government intervene and acquit them. More than 36,000
debt slaves were estimated to benefit from the reform.
The Madhav Kumar Nepal government was overthrown in
February 2011. Nepal was replaced at the Prime Minister's
post by his party partner Jhala Nath Khanal. However, this
government only lasted 6 months. In August 2011, CPN (M)
Central Committee member Baburam Bhattarai was appointed new
Despite the political instability, the Nepalese economy
continued to grow. From 3.5% in 2012, growth rose to 5% in
2011. At the same time, there was a drastic improvement in
conditions for the country's poorest. While in 2003, 53.1%
of the population lived below the international poverty line
of US $ 1.25 per person. Today, this percentage was more
than halved in 2010 to 23.8%. An important part of the
country's GDP comes from money sent home by its workers
abroad. With unemployment and underemployment of up to half
the workforce, many Nepalese choose to work abroad, from
where they send money home to the family.
After being postponed on several occasions for the
completion of a new constitution, the Constitutional
Assembly in May 2012 was dissolved by the President. In the
weeks leading up to May 2012, a number of violent
demonstrations were conducted in the area around Parliament.
Demonstrations were banned and the army put on alert in case
the police were unable to control the situation.
In September 2012, the United States decided to remove
the CPN (M) from its list of terrorist organizations. The
party had been on the US blacklist for 9 years. In October,
the last of a group of 6,500 former CPN (M) partisans joined
the country's military. This was the result of an agreement
between the political parties in November 2011.
In March 2013, Khil Raj Regmi was appointed Acting Prime
Minister to hold parliamentary elections. The election was
initially scheduled for June 2013 and then postponed until
November. The choice of Regmi was a compromise between the
major parties of Parliament. He has a past as Supreme Court
President of the country.
Also in March, a law was set up to set up a Truth,
Reconciliation and Disappearance Commission to investigate
and place responsibility for human rights violations in
1996-2006. Yet two years later, however, the commission was
The country's protracted political crisis is due to the
ongoing struggle between the CPN (M) and the old rulers.
These were the next two equal blocks facing each other, but
the fight was now waged politically, not militarily. Work on
the new constitution collapsed because the CPN (M) required
the formation of 10-14 new provinces - predominantly
according to ethnic guidelines. The CPN (M) supported a
decentralization of power and greater autonomy for the many
different ethnic groups in Nepal. This was counteracted by
the Congress Party and the other old parties.