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Namibia

Yearbook 2000

Namibia. According to COUNTRYAAH, the government's decision in December 1999 to allow Angolan government soldiers to persecute UNITA rebels in Namibia led to unrest in the border area during the year. Several towns in the northern Namibia and the Caprivi Strip were subjected to shelling and looting by suspected UNITA soldiers who fled across the border from the Angolan army. Three French tourists were shot dead in January, and in July, more than 50 Namibian civilians were killed in the first half of the year.

2000 Namibia

1982-90 Continued liberation struggle

Therefore, neither South Africa nor multinational capital had a greater interest in a negotiated solution let alone the independence of the country, and therefore the colonial power increased military spending by 30% and intensified the fight against PLAN - SWAPO's military branch. At the end of 1982 and the beginning of 83, the war continued along the entire border with Angola. The fighting also spread south, where the SWAPO guerrillas carried out bold attacks - also within the so-called "iron triangle" at the town of Grootfontein, where the most important of the South African forces were concentrated.

Internationally, a diplomatic contact group consisting of France, the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany and Canada was established. It put forward a five-point plan for transition to independence, but this suffered shipwreck. First and foremost because South Africa had the condition that all Cuban military forces should be withdrawn from Angola, while its own investments in Namibia should not be affected by the transition to independence. SWAPO, on the other hand, could not accept the privileges the proposal for a new constitution would give the people of European descent, nor the inherent barriers to subsequent revision of the constitution. At the same time, the liberation movement demanded that future elections be monitored by the UN, which was rejected by Pretoria.

In 1983, South Africa dissolved the interim government led by the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA, the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance). The background was that although the alliance was closely linked to Pretoria, it began to take a critical stance on certain aspects of apartheid. Thus, South Africa's attempt to obtain minimal support for the population ultimately suffered shipwreck. The administration of Namibia was again entrusted to a colonial governor appointed directly by South Africa's Prime Minister PW Botha. This immediately caused France to withdraw from the contact group.

In February, representatives of the governments of Angola and South Africa met in Zambia's capital Lusaka in an effort to reach a solution to the wars in the southern part of the continent. They reached an agreement whereby South Africa should withdraw its occupation troops from southern Angola and conclude a ceasefire. In May, representatives from SWAPO and other Namibian parties met with representatives from South Africa in an attempt to start negotiations, but the meeting was unsuccessful due to the stiff attitude of the apartheid regime. Contrary to the February agreement, South Africa failed to pull its troops out of Angola, and the situation again went into hardship.

In June 85, Botha installed a "transitional government" based on the Multiparty Conference, which consisted of 6 multi-ethnic and European parties as well as a wing of the ruling South African party, the National Party. The new regime had only limited powers over internal affairs, and Pretoria retained full control over foreign and security policy. SWAPO was held outside.

 

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