Namibia. According to
COUNTRYAAH, the government's decision in December 1999 to
allow Angolan government soldiers to persecute UNITA rebels
in Namibia led to unrest in the border area during the year.
Several towns in the northern Namibia and the Caprivi Strip were
subjected to shelling and looting by suspected UNITA
soldiers who fled across the border from the Angolan army.
Three French tourists were shot dead in January, and in
July, more than 50 Namibian civilians were killed in the
first half of the year.
1982-90 Continued liberation struggle
Therefore, neither South Africa nor multinational capital
had a greater interest in a negotiated solution let alone
the independence of the country, and therefore the colonial
power increased military spending by 30% and intensified the
fight against PLAN - SWAPO's military branch. At the end of
1982 and the beginning of 83, the war continued along the
entire border with Angola. The fighting also spread south,
where the SWAPO guerrillas carried out bold attacks - also
within the so-called "iron triangle" at the town of
Grootfontein, where the most important of the South African
forces were concentrated.
Internationally, a diplomatic contact group consisting of
France, the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany
and Canada was established. It put forward a five-point plan
for transition to independence, but this suffered shipwreck.
First and foremost because South Africa had the condition
that all Cuban military forces should be withdrawn from
Angola, while its own investments in Namibia should not be
affected by the transition to independence. SWAPO, on the
other hand, could not accept the privileges the proposal for
a new constitution would give the people of European
descent, nor the inherent barriers to subsequent revision of
the constitution. At the same time, the liberation movement
demanded that future elections be monitored by the UN, which
was rejected by Pretoria.
In 1983, South Africa dissolved the interim government
led by the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA, the
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance). The background was that
although the alliance was closely linked to Pretoria, it
began to take a critical stance on certain aspects of
apartheid. Thus, South Africa's attempt to obtain
minimal support for the population ultimately suffered
shipwreck. The administration of Namibia was again entrusted
to a colonial governor appointed directly by South Africa's
Prime Minister PW Botha. This immediately caused France to
withdraw from the contact group.
In February, representatives of the governments of Angola
and South Africa met in Zambia's capital Lusaka in an effort
to reach a solution to the wars in the southern part of the
continent. They reached an agreement whereby South Africa
should withdraw its occupation troops from southern Angola
and conclude a ceasefire. In May, representatives from SWAPO
and other Namibian parties met with representatives from
South Africa in an attempt to start negotiations, but the
meeting was unsuccessful due to the stiff attitude of the
apartheid regime. Contrary to the February agreement, South
Africa failed to pull its troops out of Angola, and the
situation again went into hardship.
In June 85, Botha installed a "transitional government"
based on the Multiparty Conference, which consisted of 6
multi-ethnic and European parties as well as a wing of the
ruling South African party, the National Party. The new
regime had only limited powers over internal affairs, and
Pretoria retained full control over foreign and security
policy. SWAPO was held outside.