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Yearbook 2000

Kazakhstan. The defense ministers of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, China and the Russian Federation - the so-called Shanghai Five - met in March in K. and discussed the growing threat to Central Asia from Afghan Islamic guerrillas. In April, the Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan Presidents signed a 10-year agreement to combat terrorism, political and religious extremism and organized crime in the region jointly. US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright traveled in the area during the spring, promising financial support for Kazakhstan. At the same time, she called for better protection of human rights.

2000 Kazakhstan

According to COUNTRYAAH, President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Moscow in June and met the new Russian President Vladimir Putin. A decision was made on a free trade zone and an anti-terrorist center. In the same month, Parliament decided to make Nazarbayev a lifetime president. When Nazarbayev was elected in 1999, the opposition labeled the election "deeply unfair," and the result was rejected by the OSCE.

In August, Islamic rebels entered both Kazakhstan's neighboring states Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan from Afghanistan via Tajikistan. Fighting with many casualties followed in both countries. President Nazarbayev traveled to Kyrgyzstan to meet his three Central Asian counterparts and discuss the situation.

Due to the tense situation in the region close enough, K's defense budget doubled compared to the previous year. K's economy recovered during the year following the effects of the Asian and Russian crises. The country benefited from the high prices of its export oil and was able to implement early repayments on loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). But at least 60% of the population was still estimated to be living in poverty.

Several severe environmental disasters were reported during the year. Among other things, thousands of seals died of poisoning in the Caspian Sea, and eight tons of poisoned fish were picked up from a lake in northern Kazakhstan.

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