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Brazil

Yearbook 2000

Brazil. On April 21, the 500th anniversary of the first Portuguese (Pedro Álvares Cabral) was celebrated in Brazil. According to COUNTRYAAH, the event was surrounded by protests from various popular movements, including the landless organization MST, which on May 2 occupied federal buildings in eight different states in protest of the government's land reform program. However, the action was criticized by some of MST's most important support organizations, such as the church and the Labor Party PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores), and the government pointed out that 12 million hectares of land have been distributed since President Fernando Henrique Cardosos took office in 1995 - twice as much as the previous one decade.

In the second round of mayoral elections on October 29, PT made great progress and won in 178 cities, including the industrial metropolis of São Paulo. The elections are considered to be the informal introduction to the 2002 presidential election. Despite a good economic outlook with 3.5% expected growth and relatively low inflation, the president's popularity declined steadily during the year, mainly due to continued high unemployment.

After four months of referral work, the National Environment Commission (Conama) in April proposed a law intended to protect 80% of the Amazon forest. The environmental movement welcomed the proposal, but at the same time regretted that only 35% of Brazil's savannah areas receive equivalent protection. The rate of harvesting of forests in Brazil, which has both the world's largest biodiversity and the world's most stringent environmental legislation, has increased again after a slowdown in the early 1990s, mainly through forestry companies' operations.

2000 Brazil

Requirements for independence

The export-oriented economic expansion particularly benefited the local bourgeoisie, which increasingly expressed its reluctance at the Portuguese intervention in its trade with Europe. Towards the end of the 18th century, the first independence movements in the colony arose, but they were quickly defeated by the central power. Brazil's most important symbol of liberty, Second Lieutenant Tiradentes, was executed in 1792 for its prominent role in the so-called "Mine conspiracy" three years earlier.

Napoleon's 1808 invasion of the Iberian Peninsula motivated the Portuguese king, Don Juan VI, to move the court to Brazil, giving the country a de-facto status of halfway independence. The central power no longer acted as an intermediary, and Brazil began direct trade with its main trading partner: Britain. Brazilian commercial citizenship was favored at the expense of sectors linked to the Portuguese monopoly. The revolution in Porto, Portugal in 1821 was an attempt to restore the old monopolistic colonial system. The King returned home to Portugal, but the Brazilian citizenship did not want to lose the territory it had won and with the backing of Britain declared Brazil independent. Brazil was made imperial and the regent crowned Emperor Pedro I.

Chaotic state formation

The following decade was one of the most volatile in Brazil's history. In 1831-35, a triple government power tried in vain to end the civil war in the provinces and bring an end to the disobedience of the military. In 1834, the constitution was amended with regard to. decentralization of government. Provincial assemblies were set up with extensive local powers, and it was decided to elect rulers for four-year terms. In 1835, the priest Diego Antonio Feijóo was elected to this office. For the next 2 years, he fought against the rising resolution in the country, but without success. In 1837 he had to resign and was succeeded by Pedro Araújo Lima. In the south, the gauchos had revolted. It came to span 10 years from 1835-45 and became known as the Farrapo War. The Brazilians were getting pretty tired of state power, and hoped to find a total element of an emperor. In 1840, the aging Pedro de Alcántara was therefore deployed to the throne as Pedro II.

During the empire that stretched until 1889, Brazil consolidated its national unity and expanded the borders created by gang rants in the 17th and 18th centuries. The expansion of the territory was emphasized with the incorporation of the province of Cisplatina in the south, the Triple Alliance war against Paraguay where Brazil conquered 90,000 km2 and finally the end of the century the annexation of the Bolivian Acre province. However, in 1828, Cisplatina proclaimed its independence as the Republic of Oriental del Uruguay, and thus Brazil's southern border was finally established.

Under Emperor Pedro II, the population grew from 4 to 14 million, but the economy continued to be based on the latifundi and exports of tropical agricultural products - primarily coffee. Slavery was first abolished in 1888, and this development accelerated the merger of the monarchy. But for the black population, the abolition did not mean major political or social changes. They remained out of political life when illiterate people did not have the right to vote.

 

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